This seminar focuses on a study and a discussion of the use, the abuse, and righteousness of the responsibility of protecting civilians in Libya, as well as analyzing the gap between reality and promises and hopes, as per the United Nations decisions and the Skhirat Agreement that was signed in 2015.
The seminar aims to determine the legal provisions and the accuracy of the treaties and international laws, how to deal with and solve the existing problems, and workable solutions to the problems of civilians and displaced persons, and affected people. It also discusses how to best protect unarmed civilians in the aftermath of war and beyond, as well as mines, in accordance with rules, laws, mechanisms and practical techniques from the protection programs of the UN Security Council, the protection of international law, awareness programs for civilians, the role of the media, and the United Nations, all the while touching on the legal and humanitarian aspects.
Focusing on the concept of responsibility for protection in international humanitarian law, its origin, its development, its concept, and its comprehensiveness, and its focus on vulnerable groups: women, children, elderly, sick, displaced and displaced persons. Have they effectively guaranteed the rights of civilians? Are the foundations on which the principle of responsibility for protection contributed and contribute to the effective protection of civilians ?! as well as the relationship between the responsibility to protect and the right to humanitarian intervention.
In accordance, it will discuss assessing the role of the United Nations, the international community and the international criminal tribunals in protecting civilians and the duties assigned to them today.
The seminar was held on the 26th and 27th of February 2018. It discussed the following topics and themes:
- Responsibility to protect civilians and its types.
- The responsibility to protect civilians in 2011, and the current status of its decisions, and to build upon them.
- Examples of failure to protect civilians from 2011 to 2018.
- Protection from mines and explosives.
- Protection of private property.
- Protection of cultural and religious property.
- International treaties, treaties and laws binding on the protection of civilians.
- The suffering of civilians and how to mitigate them, and the optimal protection for them.
- Parties responsible for the protection of civilians.
- Universities and academics and roles assigned to them.
- Human rights violations.
- Assessing the role of international humanitarian efforts in Libya.
- Special protection for civilians in armed conflict (protection of women, children, the sick, the wounded and the elderly – protection of clergy – protection of journalists – protection of relief personnel and medical personnel).
- Operational mechanisms for the protection of civilians (national implementation of the publication of international humanitarian law – the role of the Red Cross and Red Cross – the role of the International Court of Justice – the role of international criminal courts – criminal prosecution and impunity).
The general agenda for the seminar which lasted two days:
Day 1: 26 February 2018
Discussion sessions were as follows:
Session 1: Protection of civilians “General entry”:
The welcome speech was by Dr. Ali Hamouda on behalf of the Libya Institute for Advanced Studies.
He then presented a video entitled: The Humanitarian Situation during Seven Years. It was prepared by the Libya Institute for Studies in cooperation with Libyan Channel Libya Rouha Al-Watan.
Mr. Salah Salem spoke about “Introduction to the principle of the responsibility for protection.
“Protection of Civilians: Preliminary Problems”, by Prof.essor Abdul Majeed Al-Kout, Dean of the School of Strategic and International Studies, at the Libyan Academy.
(UN Resolutions and Human Rights Violations) by Ms. Wiem Qashout.
Session 2: The intervention in Libya. Papers were as follows:
The revolution in Libya and the dimensions of international intervention to protect civilians. Dr.Rajab Al-Mulae Professor, at the Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Beni Walid University.
The humanitarian intervention of NATO in Libya to protect the rights of civilians between reality and hopes, by Mrs. Amal Hdiya; legal adviser, and Mrs. Najia Atrak who is a professor at the Faculty of Law at Sorman.
Proximity, protection and then silence: (10 years of US policy in Libya) Prof. Dmitry Puduchinsky, Professor of Political Science and International Relations, University of Pomona, California.
Session 3: papers were as follows:
The protection of civilians in Libya and the culture of impunity, Mr. Aladdin Ben Dardaf. Professor of Political Science.
The international criminal law as a mechanism to protect against heinous crimes. “A study of the Libyan situation.” Mr. Abdel-Monem El-Horr Secretary General of the Arab Organization for Human Rights, Libya Branch.
The responsibility to protect civilians in Libya was a justification and a base for the interference in Libya. Dr. Izz al-Din al-Mukhtar, and Mr. Saleh Ghameed.
The role of the Libyan authorities in protecting civilians by Michelle Cousins, editor of Libya Herald.
Day 2: 27th of February 2018
Session 4: Displaced persons in Libya
The issue of the return of the displaced in Libya (foundations – challenges – mechanisms) d. Omar Saleh Juma, a member of the Peace Association for Charitable Works and a university professor.
Protection of displaced children in the context of armed conflict (Tarwergha children). Adel Al-Talhi. Director of the Libyan Center for Security Studies.
The situation that remains with children and the inaccessibility of school during wars and crises by Mohammed Omar bin Taleb; Office of Culture and Civil Society.
Session 5: The suffering of civilians “Tawergha as an example” (1)
Protection of civilians according to the theory of international humanitarian law and the Libyan reality. a. Mohamed Bakoush. University student.
Conditions of the Tawergha camp at the height of the shooting. Ahmed Shreitel is an information officer for Tawergha camp in Qarat al-Qatif.
History and suffering of prisons from 2011 to 2018, by Lawyer Ziad Khamis.
Session 6: The suffering of civilians in Libya “Tawergha as an example” (2)
The pretext of the protection of civilians and the declaration of war. The contradictions of the Tawergha situation. Dr. Khalid al-Toumi, Professor at the University of Aljabal Algharbi.
Tawergha and the suffering by lawyer Mohammed Salem.
Forced displacement “negative effects and possible solutions”. by Ali Nooh. President of the Rahma (Mercy) Organization.
Session 7 (final): Ambitions, Solutions, and hopes:
The failed state in Libya “its impact on the protection of civilians and its future.” by Salah Salem, a doctor at Al-Manar University, Faculty of Law and Political Science.
The Libyan National Reconciliation and Global Experiences (Case study) by Dr. Mahmoud Zakoub.
The seminar was broadcasted on Libya Rouha Al Watan Channel.